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Section 2 - Limitations

Speed Limitations

SPEED
KIAS
KCAS
REMARKS
VNE
Never exceed speed
167
168
Do not exceed this speed in any operation.
VNO
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed
135
133
Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air, and only with caution.
VA
Design Manoeuvring Speed
118
117
Do not make full or abrupt control movement above
this speed, because under certain conditions the aircraftmay be overstressed by full control movement.
VO
Operating Manoeuvring Speed
VLE
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
93
92
Do not exceed this speed with the landing gear extended.
VLO
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
93
92
Do not exceed this speed when operating the landing gear.
VFE
Maximum Flaps Extended Speed
FULL
93
92
Do not exceed this speed for indicated flaps setting.
T.O.
119
117
VMC
Aircraft Minimum Controls Speed with one engine inoperative
62
62
Do not reduce speed below this value in event of one
engine inoperative condition.

Airspeed Indicator Markings

MARKING
KIAS
EXPLANATION
White arc
53 – 93
Lower limit is VSO, upper limit is the maximum allowable speed with flaps extended in FULL position.
Red line
62
Minimum aircraft control speed with one engine inoperative and flaps set to T.O.
Green arc
66 – 135
Normal aircraft operating range (lower limit is VS1, stall speed in “clean” configuration, and upper limit is the maximum structural cruise speed VNO).
Blue line
80
Best rate-of-climb speed with one engine inoperativeat sea level.
Yellow arc
135 – 167
Speed range where manoeuvres must be conducted with caution and only in smooth air.
Red line
167
Maximum speed for all operations.

Powerplant Limitations

Following table reports the operating limitations for both engines installed:
Engine Manufacturer: Bombardier Rotax GmbH.
Engine Model: 912 S3
Maximum Power:
Max Power
kW (hp)
Max rpm.
Prop. rpm (engine)
Time max.
(minutes)
Max. T.O.
73.5 (98.6)
2388 (5800)
5
Max. Cont.
69 (92.5)
2265 (5500)
-
Temperatures:
  • Max CHT: 135°C
  • Max CT:120°C
  • Min/Max Oil: 50°C / 130°C
  • Oil normal operating range (approx.): 90°C / 110°C
Oil Pressure (below 1400 rpm prop):
  • Minimum: 0.8 Bar / 12 psi
  • Normal: 2-5 Bar / 29-73 psi
  • Maximum: 7 Bar / 102 psi
Fuel pressure:
  • Minimum: 0.15 Bar / 2.2 psi
  • Maximum 0.40 Bar / 5.8 psi

Maximum Operating Altitude

Maximum operating altitude is 14000 ft (4260 m) MSL.

Ambient Temperature

Ambient temperature: from -25°C to +50°C. Flight in expected and/or known icing conditions is forbidden.

Powerplant Instruments Markings

INSTRUMENT
RED LINE
Minimum limit
GREEN ARC
Normal operating
YELLOW ARC
Caution
RED LINE
Maximum limit
Propeller
RPM
----
580 - 2265
2265 - 2388
2388
Oil temp.
°C
50
90 – 110
50 – 90
130
CT
°C
----
50 – 120
----
120
CHT
°C
----
50 – 135
----
135
Oil pressure
Bar
0.8
2 – 5
0.8 – 2
7
Fuel press.
Psi
2.2
2.2 – 5.8
----
5.8
Fuel Qty.
litres
0*
----
----
----
"0" Indication
Shows the unusable fuel quantity (2,8 litres for each fuel tank).

Other Instruments Markings

INSTRUMENT
RED LINE
Minimum limit
GREEN ARC
Normal operating
YELLOW ARC
Caution
RED LINE
Maximum limit
Voltmeter
10,5 Volt
12 - 14 Volt
----
----

Warnings, Cautions and Advisories Lights

Warnings (RED)
Cause
LH OVERVOLT
LH electric system overvoltage
RH OVERVOLT
RH electric system overvoltage
MAIN DOOR OPEN ALERT
Main door open and/or unlocked
REAR DOOR OPEN ALERT
Rear door open and/or unlocked
LH LOW COOLANT
Left engine - coolant liquid low level
RH LOW COOLANT
Right engine - coolant liquid low level
LH ENGINE FIRE
Left engine compartment: fire detected
RH ENGINE FIRE
Right engine compartment: fire detected
LG TRANSITION
(warning light installed near the
landing gear control lever)
One or more legs are in transition phase and/or
the selected retracted/extended position is not yet
reached.
Cautions (Amber)
Cause
LH GENERATOR
LH generator failure
RH GENERATOR
RH generator failure
EXT POWER
External electrical supply connected
PITOT HEAT
Pitot heating system failure/not activated
GEAR PUMP ON
LG pump electrically supplied
Advisories (Green)
Indication
LH FUEL PUMP
Left engine - electrical fuel pump ON
RH FUEL PUMP
Right engine - electrical fuel pump ON
PITOT HEAT
Pitot heating system ON
LG Down & Locked
(3 advisory lights, one for each leg, installed
near the landing gear control lever)
Landing gear extended and locked

Weights

Condition
Weight
Maximum takeoff weight
1180 kg
2601 lb
Maximum landing weight
1180 kg
2601 lb
Maximum zero wing fuel weight
1145 kg
2524 lb

Approved Maneuvers

The aircraft is certified in normal category in accordance with EASA CS-23 regulation.
Non aerobatic operations include:
  • Any manoeuvre pertaining to “normal” flight
  • Stalls (except whip stalls)
  • Lazy eights
  • Turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°
  • Chandelle

Maneuvers Load Factor Limits

Maneuver load factors limits are as follows:
Positive
Negative
+ 3.8 g
- 1.78 g
Maneuver load factors limits with flaps extended are as follows:
Positive
Negative
+ 2 g
0 g

Flight Crew

  • Minimum crew: 1 pilot
  • Maximum number of occupants: 4 people (including the pilot)

Flight Conditions

The aircraft can be equipped for following flight operations:
  • VFR Day and Night
  • IFR Day and Night including IMC
Flight in expected and/or known icing conditions, in proximity of storms or severe turbulence is forbidden.

Fuel

  • 2 Tanks: 100 litres each one (26.42 US gallons)
  • Maximum Capacity: 200 litres (52.8 US gallons)
  • Maximum Usable Fuel: 194.4 litres (51.35 US gallons)
  • Approved Fuel: MOGAS / AVGAS