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Section 3 - Normal Procedures

Airspeeds

Normal Operations
The following airspeeds are those which are significant for normal operations, with reference to 1180 kg MTOW.
FLAPS
MTOW 1180 kg
Rotation Speed (in takeoff, VR)
T/O
64 KIAS
Best Angle-of-Climb Speed (VX)
73 KIAS
Best Rate-of-Climb speed (VY)
80 KIAS
Approach speed
T/O
90 KIAS
Final Approach Speed
FULL
70 KIAS
Manoeuvring speed (VA)
118 KIAS
Never Exceed Speed (VNE)
167 KIAS<
Single Engine Training
VSE is a speed selected as training aid for pilots in the handling of multi-engine aircraft. It is the minimum speed for intentionally rendering on engine inoperative in flight. This minimum speed provides the margin the manufacturer recommends for us when intentionally performing engine inoperative manoeuvres during training. The best practice to perform single engine training is to retard one engine to the flight parameters equivalent to a dead engine.
A simulated feather condition is obtained with propeller lever full forward and throttle lever set at 13.5 in Hg MAP at 70-90 KIAS and 2000-4000 ft (density altitude).
Recommended safe simulated OEI speed (VSSE): 70 KIAS

Pre-Flight Check - Aircraft Walk-Around

Disclaimer
The following content is based on a real checklist of the aircraft type, but is adapted to the flight simulator version and therefore not to be used for real aviation.
To perform the aircraft walk-around, carry out the checklists according to the pattern shown in Figure below.
1
Fuel
Check whether fuel is sufficient for flight or not.
Flaps
Check flap knob position with the actual flap position.
Flight Controls
Check flight controls movement with its corresponding Aileron/Elevator/Rudder.
Gear Indication
Check Gear Indication whether it's all 3 greens or not.
2
LH Tire Inflation/Condition
Check left tire inflation/condition by clicking the tire.
LH Wheel Chock
Remove left wheel chock by clicking the chock.
LH Propeller Rotation
Rotate the propeller until you hear a "burp" sound twice for a proper oil distribution.
3
LH Aileron
Check the Aileron movement by clicking the aileron to ensure the aileron working properly.
LH Tie-Down
Click the Tie-Down to remove it and stow it inside the aircraft.
4
Elevator
Check the Elevator movement by clicking the aileron to ensure the aileron working properly.
Rudder
Check the Rudder movement by clicking the aileron to ensure the aileron working properly.
5
RH Aileron
Check the Aileron movement by clicking the aileron to ensure the aileron working properly.
RH Tie-Down
Click the Tie-Down to remove it and stow it inside the aircraft.
6
Tire Inflation/Condition
Check right tire inflation/condition by clicking the tire.
RH Wheel Chock
Remove right wheel chock by clicking the chock.
RH Propeller Rotation
Rotate the propeller until you hear a "burp" sound twice for a proper oil distribution.
7
Pitot Covers
Click the Pitot Cover both Left and Right side to remove it and stow it inside the aircraft.
8
Front Tire Inflation/Condition
Check front tire inflation/condition by clicking the tire.
9
Front Wheel Chock
Remove front wheel chock by clicking the chock.

Cockpit Inspections

1
Parking brake
CHECK ENGAGED
2
Weight and balance
CHECK if within the limits
3
PFD and MFD
CHECK clean
4
Doors
CLOSED
5
Landing gear control lever
CHECK DOWN
6
Breakers
All IN
7
MASTER SWITCH
ON
8
Fuel quantity
CHECK
9
RH fuel selector
RIGHT
10
LH fuel selector
LEFT
11
RH Electrical Fuel Pump
ON, check fuel pressure gauge correct operation.
12
RH Electrical Fuel pump
OFF, check pressure decreased at zero
13
LH Electrical Fuel Pump
ON, check fuel pressure gauge correct operation.
14
LH Electrical Fuel pump
OFF, check pressure decreased at zero
15
Strobe light
ON
16
Landing gear lights
TEST
17
ELT
CHECK set to ARM
18
Flight controls
CHECK free
19
Flaps
Operate control to FULL position. Verify extension. Retract flaps.
20
Pitch trim control
Set to neutral position.
21
Rudder trim control
Set to neutral position.
22
Eng. Starting Battery Voltmeter (if installed)
Check 12 to 14 Volt

Engine Starting

Right engine starting
1
RH Throttle Lever
1/3 open
2
RH Carburetor heat
OFF
3
RH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
4
RH CHOKE
ON if required
Realistic Operation Mode
If Realistic Operation Mode selected, the rotax engine has a special oil distribution system that needs to be operated correctly before starting the engine: You need to rotate the prop manually until a bubbling noise heard from the engine. That means the oil pushed through all pipes. Then repeat this a second time. The number of rotations until the first bubbling noise is heardd epends on the Oil Temperature.
You can bypass this by selecting "Prepare for departure" on the EFB Walkaround page.
5
RH Electrical Fuel Pump
ON, check advisory light ON and positive fuel press build up
6
STROBES
ON
7
RH Ignition switches
BOTH ON
8
RH Start pushbutton
PUSH
9
RH engine oil gauge
CHECK if increasing within 10 sec. (max 7 bar in cold operation)
10
RH Throttle lever
Advance to reach 1200 RPM
11
RH Choke
OFF
12
RH Field
ON
13
RH Avionics
ON
14
RH Cross bus
ON
15
RH Electrical fuel pump
OFF
Left engine starting
1
LH Throttle Lever
1/3 open
2
LH Carburetor heat
OFF
3
LH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
4
LH CHOKE
ON if required
Realistic Operation Mode
If Realistic Operation Mode selected, the rotax engine has a special oil distribution system that needs to be operated correctly before starting the engine: You need to rotate the prop manually until a bubbling noise heard from the engine. That means the oil pushed through all pipes. Then repeat this a second time. The number of rotations until the first bubbling noise is heardd epends on the Oil Temperature.
You can bypass this by selecting "Prepare for departure" on the EFB Walkaround page.
5
LH Electrical Fuel Pump
ON, check advisory light ON and positive fuel press build up
6
LH Ignition switches
BOTH ON
7
LH Start pushbutton
PUSH
8
LH engine oil gauge
CHECK if increasing within 10 sec. (max 7 bar in cold operation)
9
LH Throttle lever
Advance to reach 1200 RPM
10
LH Choke
OFF
11
LH Field
ON
12
LH Avionics
ON
13
LH Cross bus
ON
14
LH Electrical fuel pump
OFF

Before Taxiing

1
Engine Warmup
Let the engines warm up to a minimum oil temperature of 50°C at 1200 RPM
2
Nav, Taxi and Landing lights
ON

Taxiing

1
LH/RH Fuel Selector
As required
2
LH and RH fuel pressure
Monitor
3
Parking Brake
Release
4
Flight Instruments
CHECK
5
Engine Instruments
CHECK
6
Altimeter
SET both and crosscheck max difference 150 ft
7
Brakes
TEST

Prior to Takeoff

1
Parking Brake
ENGAGED
2
RH Fuel Selector
RIGHT
3
LH Fuel Selector
LEFT
4
LH and RH fuel pressure
CHECK
5
LH and RH Engine parameters checks:
  • Oil temperature:
90o-100o C (or 50o + 130o C, if MOD2006/002 is applied)
  • CHT / CT:
50° - 135° / 120° C
  • Oil pressure:
2-5 bar (above 1400 RPM): 0.8 bar (below 1400 RPM)
  • Fuel pressure:
2.2 – 5.8 psi (0.15 - 0.40 bar) *2.2 – 7.26 psi (0.15 – 0.50 bar)
6
LH and RH Generator lights
CHECK BOTH OFF
7
LH and RH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
8
LH and RH Throttle Lever
1650 RPM
9
RH Ignitions switches
Set L / R / BOTH (RPM drop with single ignition circuit selected must not exceed 130 prop’s RPM; maximum RPM difference by use of either circuits LEFT or RIGHT cannot overcome 50 RPM)
10
RH Propeller Lever
GOVERNOR CHECK a) Reduce prop speed to 1200 RPM; b) move propeller lever back to full forward position; c) repeat a) and b) 3 times; d) verify that the governor closely and firmly controls the RPM; e) verify that 1650 prop RPM are restored with prop lever in full forward position.
NOTE
Do not cause the propeller speed drop below 1150 RPM in any case.
11
RH Carburettor heat
ON, verify propeller RPM decreasing about 100 RPM
12
RH Carburettor heat
OFF
13
RH engine instruments
CHECK parameters if within green arcs
14
LH Ignitions switches
Set L / R / BOTH (RPM drop with single ignition circuit selected must not exceed 130 prop’s RPM; maximum RPM difference by use of either circuits LEFT or RIGHT cannot overcome 50 RPM)
15
LH Propeller Lever
GOVERNOR CHECK a) Reduce prop speed to 1200 RPM; b) move propeller lever back to full forward position; c) repeat a) and b) 3 times; d) verify that the governor closely and firmly controls the RPM; e) verify that 1650 prop RPM are restored with prop lever in full forward position.
NOTE
Do not cause the propeller speed drop below 1150 RPM in any case.
16
LH Carburettor heat
ON, verify propeller RPM decreasing about 100 RPM
17
LH Carburettor heat
OFF
18
LH engine instruments
CHECK parameters if within green arcs
19
LH and RH Fuel quantity indicator
CHECK consistent with fuel plan
20
Flaps
T/O or as required (see Take OFF performances)
21
Pitch trim and rudder trim
SET neutral position
22
Flight controls
Check free

Line-Up

1
Parking Brake
RELEASE, check full in
2
Annunciator window
CHECK cautious and warnings OFF
3
RH Fuel Selector
RIGHT
4
LH Fuel Selector
LEFT
5
Pitot heat
as required
6
XPDR
SET ALT
7
Magnetic compass
CHECK
8
AHRS
CROSS CHECK

Takeoff and Climb

1
Landing light
ON
2
LH and RH Electrical Fuel pump
BOTH ON
3
Carburetors heat
CHECK OFF
4
LH and RH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
5
LH and RH Throttle Lever
FULL POWER
6
Engines Instruments
Parameters within green arcs
7
Rotation speed
MTOW 1180 kg : Vr = 64 KIAS MTOW 1230 kg : Vr = 65 KIAS
8
Apply brakes to stop wheel spinning
9
Landing gear control knob
UP : check green lights and TRANS light turned OFF within about 20 seconds
10
Landing and taxi lights
OFF above 10,000 ft
11
LH and RH Propeller Lever
Set max cont power at safe altitude
Caution
Max take off power must be limited to 5 minutes. Reduce Throttles MAP power before retracting Propeller to 2200 RPM or below.
12
LH and RH Electrical Fuel Pump
BOTH OFF
Note
It is recommended to retract landing gear when a positive climb rate is ensured at the applicable best speed (VY or VX as necessary). It has been demonstrated that best climb rate is always obtained with flaps in UP position Noteworthily best climb gradient speed (VX )flaps UP is lower than best climb speed (VX )flaps T/O up to 6000 ft (density altitude).

Cruise

1
LH and RH Propeller Lever
SET to 1900-2250 RPM
Caution
Throttles MAP decrease should be made before propeller speed reduction below 2200 RPM, as, contrariwise, Propeller Lever increase RPM should be set before engine Throttle Levers are advanced.
2
Engine parameters check (LH and RH)
  • Oil temperature:
90o - 110oC (or 50o - 130oC, if MOD2006/002 is applied)
  • CHT/CT:
50o - 135o / 50o - 120oC
  • Oil pressure:
2 - 5 bar
  • Fuel pressure:
2.2 - 5.8 psi
3
Carburetor heat as needed.
Warning
Deselect and do not use Auto Pilot if possible icing condition area is inadvertently entered.
4
Fuel balance and crossfeed
check as necessary

Descent and Approach

1
Propeller
As required
Note
In order to control engine cooling and life, it is preferable to descend with power above idle and RPM lower than full continuous.
2
Carburetors heat
As required
3
Altimeter setting
QNH set and crosscheck

Before Landing

1
LH and RH Electrical Fuel pump
BOTH ON
2
On downwind leg:
  • MTOW 1180 kg : VFE = 119 KIAS
  • MTOW 1230 kg : VFE = 122 KIAS
Flaps T/O
3
Speed below applicable VLO/VLE
Landing gear control knob - DOWN Check green lights ON
4
Carburetors heat
CHECK OFF
5
LH and RH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
6
On final leg : speed below 93 KIAS
Flaps FULL
7
Final Approach Speed
  • MTOW 1180 kg : VAPP = 70 KIAS
  • MTOW 1230 kg : VAPP = 71 KIAS
8
Landing and taxi light
ON
9
Touchdown speed
65 KIAS

Balked Landing/Missed Approach

1
LH and RH Propeller Lever
FULL FORWARD
2
LH and RH Throttle Lever
FULL POWER
Caution
Propeller Lever increase to max RPM should be attained before engine Throttle Levers are advanced to max take off power. Max take off power must be limited to 5 minutes
3
Flaps
T/O
4
Speed
Keep over 62 KIAS, climb to Vy or Vx as applicable
5
Landing gear
UP as positive climb is achieved
6
Flaps
UP
Note
It is recommended to retract landing gear when a positive climb rate is ensured at the applicable best speed (VY or VX as necessary). It has been demonstrated that best climb rate is always obtained with flaps in UP position. Noteworthily best climb gradient speed (VX) flaps UP is lower than best climb speed (VX) flaps T/O up to 6000 ft (density altitude).

After Landing

1
LH and RH Electrical Fuel pump
BOTH OFF
2
Flaps
0o
3
Pitot Heat
OFF
4
Landing light
OFF when required

Parking/Shut Down

Note
It is always suggested to park the aircraft with the nose pointing into wind to improve cooling after shut down.
1
Parking brake
Engage
2
Taxi light
OFF
3
Engines
Allow for cooling down 1 minute at idle power
4
Flaps
Check UP
5
Trims
Check neutral
Note
Ensure the engine is at its lowest possible idle speed before selecting ignitions off.
6
Ignition switches
Turn OFF one at a time
7
LH and RH AVIONICS BUS
OFF
8
LH and RH CROSS BUS
OFF
9
LH/RH Field
OFF
10
All external lights switches
OFF
11
Master switch
OFF
12
Emergency Battery / Emergency cockpit light
Check OFF

Postflight Checks

1
Protective cover for Pitot tubes,stall warning and static port plugs.
Install
2
Wheel chocks
Place under MLG